RC0-C02 Preparation Material
An administrator wants to enable policy based flexible mandatory access controls on an open source OS to prevent abnormal application modifications or executions. Which of the following would BEST accomplish this?
A. Access control lists
C. IPtables firewall
The most common open source operating system is LINUX.
Security-Enhanced Linux (SELinux) was created by the United States National Security Agency (NSA) and is a Linux kernel security module that provides a mechanism for supporting access control security policies, including United States Department of Defensestyle mandatory access controls (MAC).
NSA Security-enhanced Linux is a set of patches to the Linux kernel and some utilities to incorporate a strong, flexible mandatory access control (MAC) architecture into the major subsystems of the kernel. It provides an enhanced mechanism to enforce the separation of information based on confidentiality and integrity requirements, which allows threats of tampering and bypassing of application security mechanisms to be addressed and enables the confinement of damage that can be caused by malicious or flawed applications.
A: An access control list (ACL) is a list of permissions attached to an object. An ACL specifies which users or system processes are granted access to objects, as well as what operations are allowed on given objects. ACLs do not enable policy based flexible mandatory access controls to prevent abnormal application modifications or executions.
C: A firewall is used to control data leaving a network or entering a network based on source and destination IP address and port numbers. IPTables is a Linux firewall. However, it does not enable policy based flexible mandatory access controls to prevent abnormal application modifications or executions.
D: Host-based intrusion prevention system (HIPS) is an installed software package which monitors a single host for suspicious activity by analyzing events occurring within that host. It does not enable policy based flexible mandatory access controls to prevent abnormal application modifications or executions.
Company ABCs SAN is nearing capacity, and will cause costly downtimes if servers run out disk space. Which of the following is a more cost effective alternative to buying a new SAN?
A. Enable multipath to increase availability
B. Enable deduplication on the storage pools
C. Implement snapshots to reduce virtual disk size
D. Implement replication to offsite datacenter
Storage-based data deduplication reduces the amount of storage needed for a given set of files. It is most effective in applications where many copies of very similar or even identical data are stored on a single disk.
It is common for multiple copies of files to exist on a SAN. By eliminating (deduplicating) repeated copies of the files, we can reduce the disk space used on the existing SAN. This solution is a cost effective alternative to buying a new SAN.
A: Multipathing enables multiple links to transfer the data to and from the SAN. This improves performance and link redundancy. However, it has no effect on the amount of data on the SAN.
C: Snapshots would not reduce the amount of data stored on the SAN.
D: Replicating the data on the SAN to an offsite datacenter will not reduce the amount of data stored on the SAN. It would just create another copy of the data on the SAN in the offsite datacenter.
A systems administrator establishes a CIFS share on a UNIX device to share data to Windows systems. The security authentication on the Windows domain is set to the highest level. Windows users are stating that they cannot authenticate to the UNIX share. Which of the following settings on the UNIX server would correct this problem?
A. Refuse LM and only accept NTLMv2
B. Accept only LM
C. Refuse NTLMv2 and accept LM
D. Accept only NTLM
In a Windows network, NT LAN Manager (NTLM) is a suite of Microsoft security protocols that provides authentication, integrity, and confidentiality to users. NTLM is the successor to the authentication protocol in Microsoft LAN Manager (LANMAN or LM), an older Microsoft product, and attempts to provide backwards compatibility with LANMAN. NTLM version 2 (NTLMv2), which was introduced in Windows NT 4.0 SP4 (and natively supported in Windows 2000), enhances NTLM security by hardening the protocol against many spoofing attacks, and adding the ability for a server to authenticate to the client.
This question states that the security authentication on the Windows domain is set to the highest level. This will be NTLMv2. Therefore, the answer to the question is to allow NTLMv2 which will enable the Windows users to connect to the UNIX server. To improve security, we should disable the old and insecure LM protocol as it is not used by the Windows computers.
B: The question states that the security authentication on the Windows domain is set to the highest level. This will be NTLMv2, not LM.
C: The question states that the security authentication on the Windows domain is set to the highest level. This will be NTLMv2, not LM so we need to allow NTLMv2.
D: The question states that the security authentication on the Windows domain is set to the highest level. This will be NTLMv2, not NTLM (version1).
A security architect is designing a new infrastructure using both type 1 and type 2 virtual machines. In addition to the normal complement of security controls (e.g. antivirus, host hardening, HIPS/NIDS) the security architect needs to implement a mechanism to securely store cryptographic keys used to sign code and code modules on the VMs. Which of the following will meet this goal without requiring any hardware pass-through implementations?
A Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a microchip designed to provide basic security-related functions, primarily involving encryption keys. The TPM is usually installed on the motherboard of a computer, and it communicates with the remainder of the system by using a hardware bus.
A vTPM is a virtual Trusted Platform Module.
IBM extended the current TPM V1.2 command set with virtual TPM management commands that allow us to create and delete instances of TPMs. Each created instance of a TPM holds an association with a virtual machine (VM) throughout its lifetime on the platform.
B: A hardware security module (HSM) is a physical computing device that safeguards and manages digital keys for strong authentication and provides cryptoprocessing. These modules traditionally come in the form of a plug-in card or an external device that attaches directly to a computer or network server. This solution would require hardware pass-through.
C: A Trusted Platform Module (TPM) is a microchip designed to provide basic security-related functions, primarily involving encryption keys. The TPM is usually installed on the motherboard of a computer, and it communicates with the remainder of the system by using a hardware bus. Virtual machines cannot access a hardware TPM.
D: INE (intelligent network element) is not used for storing cryptographic keys.
A user has a laptop configured with multiple operating system installations. The operating systems are all installed on a single SSD, but each has its own partition and logical volume. Which of the following is the BEST way to ensure confidentiality of individual operating system data?
A. Encryption of each individual partition
B. Encryption of the SSD at the file level
C. FDE of each logical volume on the SSD
D. FDE of the entire SSD as a single disk
In this question, we have multiple operating system installations on a single disk. Some operating systems store their boot loader in the MBR of the disk. However, some operating systems install their boot loader outside the MBR especially when multiple operating systems are installed. We need to encrypt as much data as possible but we cannot encrypt the boot loaders. This would prevent the operating systems from loading.
Therefore, the solution is to encrypt each individual partition separately.
B: The question is asking for the BEST way to ensure confidentiality of individual operating system data. Individual file encryption could work but if files are ever added to the operating systems (for updates etc.), you would have to manually encrypt the new files as well. A better solution would be to encrypt the entire partition. That way any new files added to the operating system would be automatically encrypted.
C: You cannot perform full disk encryption on an individual volume. Full disk encryption encrypts the entire disk.
D: FDE of the entire SSD as a single disk would encrypt the boot loaders which would prevent the operating systems from booting.
After being notified of an issue with the online shopping cart, where customers are able to arbitrarily change the price of listed items, a programmer analyzes the following piece of code used by a web based shopping cart.
SELECT ITEM FROM CART WHERE ITEM=ADDSLASHES($USERINPUT);
The programmer found that every time a user adds an item to the cart, a temporary file is created on the web server /tmp directory. The temporary file has a name which is generated by concatenating the content of the $USERINPUT variable and a timestamp in the form of MM-DD-YYYY, (e.g. smartphone-12-25-2013.tmp) containing the price of the item being purchased. Which of the following is MOST likely being exploited to manipulate the price of a shopping carts items?
A. Input validation
B. SQL injection
D. Session hijacking
In this question, TOCTOU is being exploited to allow the user to modify the temp file that contains the price of the item.
In software development, time of check to time of use (TOCTOU) is a class of software bug caused by changes in a system between the checking of a condition (such as a security credential) and the use of the results of that check. This is one example of a race condition.
A simple example is as follows: Consider a Web application that allows a user to edit pages, and also allows administrators to lock pages to prevent editing. A user requests to edit a page, getting a form which can be used to alter its content. Before the user submits the form, an administrator locks the page, which should prevent editing. However, since editing has already begun, when the user submits the form, those edits (which have already been made) are accepted. When the user began editing, the appropriate authorization was checked, and the user was indeed allowed to edit. However, the authorization was used later, at a time when edits should no longer have been allowed.
TOCTOU race conditions are most common in Unix between operations on the file system, but can occur in other contexts, including local sockets and improper use of database transactions.
A: Input validation is used to ensure that the correct data is entered into a field. For example, input validation would prevent letters typed into a field that expects number from being accepted. The exploit in this question is not an example of input validation.
B: SQL injection is a type of security exploit in which the attacker adds Structured Query Language (SQL) code to a Web form input box to gain access to resources or make changes to data. The exploit in this question is not an example of a SQL injection attack.
D: Session hijacking, also known as TCP session hijacking, is a method of taking over a Web user session by obtaining the session ID and masquerading as the authorized user. The exploit in this question is not an example of session hijacking.
The administrator is troubleshooting availability issues on an FCoE-based storage array that uses deduplication. The single controller in the storage array has failed, so the administrator wants to move the drives to a storage array from a different manufacturer in order to access the dat
a. Which of the following issues may potentially occur?
A. The data may not be in a usable format.
B. The new storage array is not FCoE based.
C. The data may need a file system check.
D. The new storage array also only has a single controller.
Fibre Channel over Ethernet (FCoE) is a computer network technology that encapsulates Fibre Channel frames over Ethernet networks. This allows Fibre Channel to use 10 Gigabit Ethernet networks (or higher speeds) while preserving the Fibre Channel protocol.
When moving the disks to another storage array, you need to ensure that the array supports FCoE, not just regular Fiber Channel. Fiber Channel arrays and Fiber Channel over Ethernet arrays use different network connections, hardware and protocols. Fiber Channel arrays use the Fiber Channel protocol over a dedicated Fiber Channel network whereas FCoE arrays use the Fiber Channel protocol over an Ethernet network.
A: It is unlikely that the data will not be in a usable format. Fiber Channel LUNs appear as local disks on a Windows computer. The computer then creates an NTFS volume on the fiber channel LUN. The storage array does not see the NTFS file system or the data stored on it. FCoE arrays only see the underlying block level storage.
C: The data would not need a file system check. FCoE arrays use block level storage and do not check the file system. Any file system checks would be performed by a Windows computer. Even if this happened, the data would be accessible after the check.
D: The new storage array also having a single controller would not be a problem. Only one controller is required.
Joe, a hacker, has discovered he can specifically craft a webpage that when viewed in a browser crashes the browser and then allows him to gain remote code execution in the context of the victims privilege level. The browser crashes due to an exception error when a heap memory that is unused is accessed. Which of the following BEST describes the application issue?
A. Integer overflow
C. Race condition
D. SQL injection
E. Use after free
F. Input validation
Use-After-Free vulnerabilities are a type of memory corruption flaw that can be leveraged by hackers to execute arbitrary code.
Use After Free specifically refers to the attempt to access memory after it has been freed, which can cause a program to crash or, in the case of a Use-After-Free flaw, can potentially result in the execution of arbitrary code or even enable full remote code execution capabilities.
According to the Use After Free definition on the Common Weakness Enumeration (CWE) website, a Use After Free scenario can occur when “the memory in question is allocated to another pointer validly at some point after it has been freed. The original pointer to the freed memory is used again and points to somewhere within the new allocation. As the data is changed, it corrupts the validly used memory; this induces undefined behavior in the process.”
A: Integer overflow is the result of an attempt by a CPU to arithmetically generate a number larger than what can fit in the devoted memory storage space. Arithmetic operations always have the potential of returning unexpected values, which may cause an error that forces the whole program to shut down. This is not what is described in this question.
B: Clickjacking is a malicious technique of tricking a Web user into clicking on something different from what the user perceives they are clicking on, thus potentially revealing confidential information or taking control of their computer while clicking on seemingly innocuous web pages. This is not what is described in this question.
C: A race condition is an undesirable situation that occurs when a device or system attempts to perform two or more operations at the same time, but because of the nature of the device or system, the operations must be done in the proper sequence to be done correctly. This is not what is described in this question.
D: SQL injection is a type of security exploit in which the attacker adds Structured Query Language (SQL) code to a Web form input box to gain access to resources or make changes to data. This is not what is described in this question.
F: Input validation is used to ensure that the correct data is entered into a field. For example, input validation would prevent letters typed into a field that expects number from being accepted. This is not what is described in this question.
A developer is determining the best way to improve security within the code being developed. The developer is focusing on input fields where customers enter their credit card details. Which of the following techniques, if implemented in the code, would be the MOST effective in protecting the fields from malformed input?
A. Client side input validation
B. Stored procedure
C. Encrypting credit card details
D. Regular expression matching
Regular expression matching is a technique for reading and validating input, particularly in web software. This question is asking about securing input fields where customers enter their credit card details. In this case, the expected input into the credit card number field would be a sequence of numbers of a certain length. We can use regular expression matching to verify that the input is indeed a sequence of numbers. Anything that is not a sequence of numbers could be malicious code.
A: Client side input validation could be used to validate the input into input fields. Client side input validation is where the validation is performed by the web browser. However this question is asking for the BEST answer. A user with malicious intent could bypass the client side input validation whereas it would be much more difficult to bypass regular expression matching implemented in the application code.
B: A stored procedure is SQL code saved as a script. A SQL user can run the stored procedure rather than typing all the SQL code contained in the stored procedure. A stored procedure is not used for validating input.
C: Any stored credit card details should be encrypted for security purposes. Also a secure method of transmission such as SSL or TLS should be used to encrypt the data when transmitting the credit card number over a network such as the Internet. However, encrypting credit card details is not a way of securing the input fields in an application.
A security administrator was doing a packet capture and notice
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